Confirmation bias

July 7, 2021
 by Paul McGowan

Wikipedia describes Confirmation Bias as this:

The tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms or supports one’s prior beliefs or values. People display this bias when they select information that supports their views, ignoring contrary information, or when they interpret ambiguous evidence as supporting their existing attitudes. The effect is strongest for desired outcomes, for emotionally charged issues, and for deeply entrenched beliefs. Confirmation bias cannot be eliminated entirely, but it can be managed, for example, by education and training in critical thinking skills.

When we believe something to be true we search out evidence supporting those feelings at the expense of evidence to the contrary.

We do not like being wrong.

We see a lot of this in high-end audio. On the one hand, those of us believing every aspect of the signal chain has an audible impact are constantly on high alert for supporting evidence. On the other hand, those believing none of this has any impact on sound quality are doing exactly the same thing.

One of the beauties of high-end audio is what I like to call the Ultimate Truth.

Regardless of your bias, there is always a final arbiter.

The sound of live, unamplified music.

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56 comments on “Confirmation bias”

  1. “We do not like being wrong”
    Well, I prefer not to be wrong but if I am, I’m the first to admit it.
    It’s not the end of the world if I’m wrong about something.
    However, I can confirm that I am biased towards listening to
    how good, or bad, an audio component is in ‘the chain’, rather
    than caring about how it measures a la test equipment.

    Please explain what woman I called a coward; & what the circumstances were,
    before you start typing rubbish on ‘Ask Paul’ (July 6th)

    ‘Como sexual’ – hilarious!
    Great story build-up.
    I didn’t see that one coming (pun unintended)
    even though I should’ve 🙂

  2. The last line in today’s post always gets me….

    As opposed to? ….

    As far as confirmation bias goes, is it adjustable? If so, you can change sides of the aisle anytime you want with no personal struggle.

  3. Religious tyranny crept into humanity 6000 years ago with:
    Good – Bad
    Yes – No
    Right – Wrong
    Peace – War
    We have been well trained in our absolutes!
    Early science, if it did not fall under the category of God’s nature it would not be published.

  4. The product line PSA are known for are the regenerators. I’ve used one and it sounded like it was of benefit to a particular system.

    The theory is that all audio equipment benefits from lower mains impedance and stable voltage. I have asked on the forum and Paul if you can measure your mains impedance at the socket and at what level it becomes an issue. No one seems to have any answers. My hifi is independent of voltage, having a universal power supply. My mains power varies by about 2v and I have no idea how critical that would be to anything.

    So PSA will want to present information that regenerators are a universal panacea, the consumer can’t objectively test those claims so the only option is to plug it in and find out.

    If your belief system is that everything makes a difference, it is a 100% certainty that it will make a difference. It is because some audiophiles never work on a null hypothesis, central to much observational science, known to audiophiles as blind testing.

    The null hypothesis approach is the complete opposite of Paul’s approach, because it requires you to show that there is a statistically significant difference between two sets of independent data (ie blind listening tests). There are audiophiles who take this approach.

      1. I fully agree with you Steven. I look at the stated goal (live) as marketing hyperbole. Instead I think of two channel audio as it’s own form of entertainment. Being it’s own form of entertainment we’re all free to choose what we prefer in the scheme of things. Everything makes a difference in the final presented sound, some more than others.

        Does a video recording of a ballet or theater production ever fully convey a ‘live illusion’ as compared to seeing it performed in person? My answer is no. Can a video recording be entertaining in a home environment? Then my answer is yes.

        So why has 2 channel audio been allowed to perpetuate the myth with little to show for it in the final result? (So far)

        1. You took the words out of my mouth. We’ve seen hundreds of ballets (we were at Covent Garden Saturday night for the last show of the current season), many of them several times, and dozens of operas, but I’ve never sat down and watched one at home. I own one DVD (the Royal Opera production of Krol Roger, it was fabulous), but never watched it.

          There is a gap between recorded sound and a musical experience, omnipresent, occasionally modest, often so wide as to be incomparable.

          I agree with you, it has always been a marketing ploy to suggest it can be bridged, when it cannot.

          In 1955/56 Peter Walker (Quad) and Gilbert Briggs (Wharfedale) did a series of famous presentations at Carnegie Hall, NYC, and the Festival Hall, London, demonstrating live against recorded music on stage. Quad’s logo since the 1940s has been “The closest approach to the original sound”, so even though they did the most widely attended presentations ever done, there is an implied acceptance that reproducing the original sound is unobtainable.

          1. I can truthfully say that my daughter has played Covent Garden. When she graduated from high school, her instrumental music teacher nominated her to The Musical Ambassadors of Nebraska (now you know where it is 🙂 ) playing flute and piccolo. They flew across The Pond for a 2-1/2 week tour of 5 concerts in England and 5 more on the Continent. She brought back a used (not pristine, but still quite playable after letting the warps flatten out on a glass sheet in intermittent sun over a couple of weeks; it took longer for the musty odor of the cardboard jacket to dissipate), native copy of “Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band” on Parlophone/EMI plus a Swiss Army Knife from Crans-Montana for her old Dad.

        2. Hello Mike, Much of your comment could have been written by Soundmind. The difference is you are offering your ideas, and Soundmind would be passionate in constructing his comments. I appreciate your offering and miss Soundmind’s passionate constructions of logic.

          1. Hello JAS,

            I miss Soundmind’s prose and expertise as much as you. I’m not sure what ideas I offered. I went back and forth with soundmind a few times over this topic. The only point I was trying to make to him back then and to those that read today was one of expectations. I have personally never expected 2 channel to sound live. At the same time I do expect things to sound ‘real’. All That being said, I get an immense amount of pleasure out of my 2 channel systems.

            Thanks for your words and thoughts.

      2. Steven,

        I’m sure the ‘audiophile dream’ as an absolute is a forlorn hope, but let’s not give up on the dream. I don’t know about you but as I sit listening to my system most nights I derive the utmost pleasure from it. It’s enjoyable, settling, reassuring, relaxing, mood and almost mind altering, without drugs or alcohol, so healthy as well. I consider hi-fi my key hobby as it’s the one I visit most frequently. Like many, if not all here, music is an important part of my life and I for one am eternally grateful where hi-fi is today and the benefits it gives me, most I expect completely unmeasurable 😉

        Thinking it through and from things you’ve said before, I imagine you enjoy your system just as much 🙂

        1. I share your healthy attitude to hifi.

          I get great pleasure from my stereo system and miss it given I’ve got builders in. I can go to Covent Garden and see a ballet or opera, but I can’t go to Ronnie Scott’s and see John Coltrane or Thelonious Monk. I can go and see Steven Isserlis play the cello and listen to him at home on recordings, because thankfully he is still alive, but am under no illusions that they amount to the same thing.

          The thing that has become most apparent due to Covid-19 is the relationship between performer and audience. So many performers have spoken at recitals about how important it is and how much they miss it. They realised as they were doing a lot of live streams without an audience. We went to Rachel Podger’s first performance after lock-down and met her in Joe & The Juice before the show, as we were the last two customers before they closed. She was almost bursting with excitement at being in front of people again. She couldn’t stop chatting.

          That connection between performer and audience is probably the most important difference when listening live to recordings. It’s because we’re humans and stereo systems are just lumps of metal and plastic that vibrate transducers.

    1. Steven,
      I don’t know about you, but I don’t listen to canned music with my statistics, therefore they are irrelevant.

      “…can’t objectively test those claims so the only option is to plug in & find out.” (Fat Rat shrugs his shoulders)…no! Really?
      So you’re saying that the only way to asses PS Audio regenerators in a home audio system, a subjective hobby/pursuit/passion/interest, is in the home…subjectively??!
      My God!!
      Well that’s just genius!
      ‘Brilliant even’- (Jeremy Clarkson voice)

      When home audio becomes an objective pursuit then, & only then, will I expect relevant & meaningful objective measuring, but until that happens I think that those objective results are pretty pointless for the end user…in my not so humble opinion 😉

    2. 1) Does your hifi sound better at night? If so, perhaps it’s an AC power problem, and perhaps that is remediable with a PSA regenerator…
      So go on, install one and listen and truly try to believe that it either isn’t doing anything, or not much, not worthwhile.
      3) If that [nul hypothesis] fails, keep the darn thing.
      Else send it back, with the consolation of a free lesson.

      1. Peter,
        Steven doesn’t live in America, so more
        than likely said ‘lesson’ wont be free.
        Also, I’m pretty sure that, in this
        instance, he’s just sh!t-stirring 😉

  5. We see this “confirmation bias” in major world issues and so forth! With regards to Paul’s post I think the way he has worded to describe his feelings of “confirmation bias” is rooted in so many things most people dare not to even think of, which of course I won’t get into.

    For Audio though. I love it. You can sound like a badass when experiencing confirmation bias from another person.

    “ well I don’t hear what you are hearing from this…I’m calling you out.” 😉

  6. [One of the beauties of high-end audio is what I like to call the Ultimate Truth. Regardless of your bias, there is always a final arbiter. The sound of live, unamplified music.]

    AMEN Paul! If you have live experience and auditory recall references of what keyboard, vocal, choral and string/wind/percussive ensembles really sound like, then you just might have the best tools to judge recordings and audio playback systems!!

  7. One last thought before I head back to the reality of life and work today.

    Regarding the line…

    “Regardless of your bias, there is always a final arbiter. The sound of live, unamplified music.”

    What then becomes the arbiter to those who mainly listen to studio recorded and mixed amplified music? Or does that not pertain to the “audiophile” lexicon? That any one who listens to any form of music other than pure acoustical is some how inherently flawed?

    1. Mike,

      I picked up on that line and began to question it. What I think Paul is saying, or the way I interpreted it, is than once you amplify music or process it in any way it adds electronics which further complicates the picture. Live, unamplified music is music in its purest form which is why it’s considered the final arbiter. No criticism of other musical tastes intended, except maybe…, I’m joking.

      1. Like you Richtea,

        I understand the point. At the same time I don’t subscribe to to the comment because how do you compare pure acoustical to some music that isn’t presented that way. So if the goal is to reproduce an acoustical performance and by inference everything else has to sound correct then ok.

        I enjoy 2 channel audio as much as the next person here. I just accept it as is. Not as a panacea to what it may or may not be in the future. And at this point not as Live.

        1. […how do you compare pure acoustical to some music that isn’t presented that way. So if the goal is to reproduce an acoustical performance and by inference everything else has to sound correct then ok…]


          I believe that is exactly what Paul is trying to say! I recall the advertisement, “Is it Live, or is it Memorex”! That was during the cassette era of 70’s & 80’s and today just as yesterday, It’s still the same answer…It’s Memorex (not live, just a facsimile)!!! I listen to and thoroughly enjoy a wide genre of amplified music, but specifically use non-amplified music for personal enlightenment and system reference evaluation…it’s All Good! 😉

          1. Thanks for the comments Theo.

            I guess I have to get better at “reading between the lines for the deeper meaning” 😉

            I just used a line above about expectations. As I think about things even more…. Since I think that getting 2 channel to sound “live” is a stretch, maybe what I’m expecting is for things to sound ‘real’.

            That may come across as a game of semantics but I think it fits. Then for me the comparison becomes much more easy.

            I had an easy day, the gear is warmed up, and I’m headed into music room to sit back and just enjoy.

  8. We observe similar behavior with politics. There’s also an ultimate truth which partly even is easy to find out. But there, many don’t want to hear/see the truth.

    It’s as if someone intensively avoids to listen to unamplified live concerts, just to be able to further stand by the alternative truth of his personal setup and opinion 😉

  9. Live, unamplified music….. in a well designed acoustic environment. Don’t expect to hear all three of these virtues in a noisy jazz club. Too much human noise going on at the tables and the bar not to mention the employees hustling back-and-forth while you trying to listen and enjoy. Perhaps in a quiet concert hall we may get closer two a great musical experience. I wonder how objective listeners deal with live music.

    BTW, did today’s topic originate from a response to a comment I made in yesterday’s video? Those two words really cooked my grits and turned into a back-and-forth unsavory conversation with the sender. IMO, almost everyone who is an audiophile has confirmation bias and it takes quite a bit of self-control to not let your ego push the conscious mind to claim that they have the biggest and best.

      1. It was made by Slothgirl in your tube aging video and the last sentence in her comment was…
        “ I think there is a lot of confirmational bias going on“. What a coincidence! I know your response above is true but holy cow these things just don’t happen to me. That’s why I don’t gamble because I never win.

    1. FR, I apologize for using a reply to your post to comment on your post, Steve Guttenberg and Paul’s original post.

      Let’s start with Paul. The sound of recorded music played back at home depends on two systems: the system that was used to record the music and the home playback system. The idea that people who listen to a lot of live unamplified music and have tweaked their home playback system to the sound of the lived unamplified music that they are accustom to can only be even remotely worthwhile if one assumes that the impact of the recording system on the original sound is much less than the impact home payback system. Based on my limited experience with recording systems I most certainly do not feel their impact is minimal compared to the home playback systems. So, while in theory, live unamplified music can be the final arbitrator, in practice this is almost impossible to do.

      Now having just said that it may be a surprise what I am about to say about Steve Guttenberg ( and FR’s support of his position ). First, I want to say that before I retired I was an expert on certain kinds of measurements and I often worked with metrologists on very complex measurements. Second, I have met Steve Guttenberg at a few audio shows and he seems like a nice guy and well meaning. I disagree with him and FR that measurements of audio gear are not needed because all that matters is if you think something sounds good ( I will return to this point later ) but I am not offended by it.

      What I am offended by is Steve’s assertion that measurements made on audio gear are often done by incompetent people, using poor techniques and gear and that their interpretation of the measurements are worthless. I cannot say that there are no audio websites out there that make poor measurements, but what I can assure to you is that the measurements made John Atkinson at Stereophile and Paul Miller at HFN&RR are of the highest quality made using the high quality instruments and properly interpreted. Steve’s claim that all reviewers are on the same team does not excuse his degrading of people like John Atkinson and Paul Miller.

      There are many reasons why measurements are important not just when the gear is reviewed, but also in the specifications listed by the manufacture in helping you buy the right gear. Here are a few examples:

      The amount of jitter while not the only thing that effects to sound of digital playback gear it is certainly one of the most important things that impacts the sound.

      If a speakers impedance drops below 2 ohms it can effect some amp’s ability to drive the speakers.

      If you are using separates it is best to know the input and output impedance of both your preamp and amp or you might end up attenuating the high frequency content of the music.

      I wish that all manufactures were required by law to measure and publish the results of certain properties of their gear although given that we still struggle to get manufactures to measure what is in the food that we eat I realize that doing the same for audio gear is not very likely.

      1. Tony,
        Apology accepted 😉
        (Actually there’s no need for you to apologise as your views on home audio are just as valid as mine & that’s exactly what the ‘reply’ facility is for; rebuttals)
        I believe that measurements are important during the design & during the manufacture stage of audio components & are therefore readily available to all who need/want to know what those measurements are.
        My ‘angle’ comes strictly from the view of the end-user’s hearing & what they experience sound-wise from a, or any, particular home audio set-up (audio chain).
        When I was starting out in Audio I used to get all excited about the measurements of the individual components, (like training wheels on a bicycle) but as I’ve aged those measurements have become less & less important as I learned to listen better, to the point where now measurements don’t matter at all anymore to me; except for power & impedance.
        If it sounds good, it sounds good & if it doesn’t, it doesn’t.
        This view may be too simplistic for some people, but it works for me.

    2. I will state it again FR, if you listen closely to everything that Steve Guttenburg said was by his own words and was only his opinion. It’s what we hear that counts not the measurements which may or may not correlate to what listeners here, I believe accurate measurements are for design engineers and people who would like to see them.. Should the manufacturers state the important measurements? Absolutely. That doesn’t help listeners who have their own subjective opinions about what they hear and what they find appealing to their sensibilities. We are all different and we all have our own opinions about sound quality. That’s what Steve Guttenburg was driving at. I have mentioned the name Julian Hirsch and his dogma about measurements on many occasions and get very few replies defending him because what he was lecturing about was absolute bullshit. He stated “If amplifier A has the identical measurements as amplifier B then they will sound exactly the same”. He did use the word “will” not “may”. Hirsch was an engineer with a PhD which is usually not necessary in electronics with a stick up you know where preaching this dogma until the day that he died. Shame on him. In those years things were somewhat different when it came to audio reviews but he was dead wrong. I have never been challenged by my rebuke of these statements about Julian Hirsch. I left his lecture scratching my head and laughing out loud at the same time and I was 23 years old then. I had more common sense than this PhD who had an ax to grind. On balance, Steve Guttenburg is usually very careful about what he says and if you watch the video several times you will see that he is not damning measurements. He is just talking about how he does his subjective listening versus too many people (many of them who preach their own dogma) are preaching measurements Uber Alis. No one has to agree with him and in fact he asked his listeners for comments about what he was saying to get a better feel for his audience about this topic. I think that’s pretty open minded.

      1. stimpy2, I cannot find any record of Julian Hirsch receiving a Ph.D. in electrical engineering. It is well documented that he did earn a Bachelor’s degree electrical engineering.

        1. I don’t have any hard evidence about his PhD but I absolutely recall that in an article about him years ago it was claimed that he had a PhD. I threw that in there because of my anger towards Mr. Hirsch. At 23 years of age this was my first taste of misinformation (Well maybe not really) but I took every article that this man wrote as poison to the audiophile community after listening to his lecture and reading all of the opposition rise up against him. I will say that the rest of the story is true. If I misstated his credentials I sincerely apologize. I’m going to do a little of my own research today because I know that what I said is something that I came across over the course of my lifetime.

          1. My research turned up nothing with regard to Mr. Hersh obtaining a PhD and I apologize for this misstatement. He did attend the Cooper union which is a very prestigious learning institution in New York. He received his BSEE from this school. I will say that there was so much commotion in print about what Julian Hirsch was trying to accomplish in bringing down subjective listening. It was angering most of the audiophile community for years. Thanks for bringing up my false claim. I was so sure that I was correct when I wrote the original comment and that was not my intention.

            1. stimpy2, Forgetaboutit! Stuff like this happens all the time. I worked for a major corporation for 30 years. Their records say that I got my degrees at the University of Washington in Washington state. I actually got my degrees at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri where I was born and raised. After the third time I tried to get them to fix it I just gave up.

  10. Confirmation bias is just one of many cognitive biases that have an effect on our assessment of what we hear. They virtually assure we cannot escape our irrationality.
    To me, the re-creation of live music with home audio is likely to remain a Brownian reach for some time to come. It’s not hard to imagine future digital simulacra that create a realistic live reproduction, but I doubt that will come out of the 2-channel audiophile systems we have today. I like the ballet video metaphor. Even with the best and biggest of screens and surround systems, we’d have to be on drugs to think it was a live performance. Instead, we choose to be entertained by the reproduction. Like watching a travelogue in 4K. For audiophiles, our hobby seems to be about information extraction and presentation. Not live reproduction, because that’s not what’s being manufactured (though some recordings occasionally present a spooky illusion, e.g., Foxfeather). I agree with Paul that a live piano or female voice or plucked double bass are the benchmarks for whether our systems are reasonably faithful. And we can listen, measure, and argue about what “things” can affect that fidelity, with all our cognitive biases in play.

  11. I think that this comment readily applies to our main stream media and there are many guilty parties. Everyone want to prove their point.

    In music, is it live or is it Memorex debate will never end. Is a “live performance” better captured by an analog tape machine, mastered “digitally?”. and then cut and pressed a “better” representation of a live event with nothing between us and the performance? What weight vinyl will you use? We cannot forget that every performance is a snow flake and no two performances will be the same. IMHO I think that what Octave Records and Blue Coast are doing is raising the bar as high as it can go right now.

    I don’t know what the world total is in terms of the number of music lovers with audio systems, surely in the millions, yet we could all play the same CD or LP and not hear the same thing as our gear or rooms are not the same. This doesn’t take into account our personal hearing differences. Surely there are those with over $500,000 in their systems who would think they have it right in their room, but at someone else’s place it would sound different.

    Recorded music, whether in a studio or live on a stage is so dependent on so many things including which and how many microphones, which mic preamps etc. Is the recording engineer recording what he hears on headphones and now much time did he/she spend in the room listening to what the group sounds like “in that room”? Is that what they want captured or are they seeking some other sonic signature they “prefer”? I could pretty much be assured that every main room at every great recording studio sounds different, so something recording at The Tracking Room in Nashville will sound different that Studio A at Capitol.

    I think at best we buy gear we can afford and like, set it up in our rooms based on some science to get it to sound as good as we can, and like, and then try and enjoy our purchases as physical media or downloads, and even streams if that is what you like.

    I could never be so bold as to say what I own or use, what I’ve recorded or even listened to live is the best. How many copies of the same performance/recording has been issued on various formats, reissued, then reissued as high resolution, re-mastered by different people and think there is one definitive presentation. The arguments about vinyl vs. digital will never end.

    I surely don’t know what the truth is often as the “marketing” gets in the way, but what I can do is enjoy what I have and the music I’ve bought, even though I know that I don’t even own gear that even approaches the best gear that PS Audio sells, so I have to accept where I am and work to enjoy it and not worry about what I don’t own.

    I was watching a YouTube video presentation of a drum teacher reviewing a video of the late Buddy Rich and a drum solo. He was trying to explain why so many either love or hate his style of drumming. The debate rages over who is the best drummer of all time. As Buddy is playing the teacher has to admit that some of the moves Buddy made in his playing were totally unbelievable and that he was leaning to believe that Buddy had to be ranked as one of the best, if it was even possible to say that any one drummer was the best.

    As I am watching this video I noticed that the only microphone being used was what looked like 1 dynamic mic on a stand about 6 feet up, out from the left of the high hat. One mic, no others. I was shocked that one mic was doing a good job of picking up the sound of his entire kit. I will admit that I was listening and watching intently at Buddy’s drumming. My attention was trying to take in two senses.

    I have also watched a video of drummer Steve Gadd shooting a video with just a Zoom Q2N video camera ( I own it and a Q8) and with just the two built in mics with the camera on a mic stand about 6 + feet high the sound he recorded with just the internal mics was very realistic at 24/96. No mic on the kick.

    As I recalled those videos I thought that I have heard many drummers’ recordings that did not sound a whole lot better, but some over the years were much better recordings with multiple mics. SOMETIMES SIMPLE WORKS GREAT, and other times to capture the most you need multiple mics, and maybe an ISO booth. Would it sound the same as what you heard in the studio?

    I just read a review of a $40K turntable and the reviewer found faults. After reading that I thought, how can there be any hope for audio accuracy or an audio truth? Video at 8K is still not real, but I am not going back to my parents’ swell Motorola 21″ black and white TV. I will try and take better as it comes.

  12. I really enjoyed reading your comment Jim T. IMHO everything you said here seems to make quite a bit of sense.

    BTW…I think it would be hard for any professional drummer to disagree with you about Buddy Rich being one of the best. During his time he was way out in front of most other drummers in so many (but not all) respects. He had more energy than just about any other drummer I’ve ever seen as well and he was funny as hell. There are some great YouTube videos of Buddy playing on the Johnny Carson show which I think may stagger anyone who watches him play. Wish I could have seen him live. I did have the good fortune to be at the Five Spot in New York City for many Friday evenings with my friend to listen to the Max Roach Quintet with Abby Lincoln singing a few numbers. My friend and I even got Freddie Hubbard and Ronnie Matthews to sit down and have a beer during a break. Those were the days.

    1. While in school for music, got to hear Buddy Rich and his band in concert back in 1973! Really displayed his talent and professionalism during one 15 minute solo jam, simply a stunning and AMAZING percussionist! If any one could make a trap set Sing, it was Buddy! Of course, his band was loaded with extreme talent and their almost 3 hour non-stop performance will be one I’ll remember and cherish forever! 🙂

  13. Thanks for the reminder Fat Rat.
    I just watched the whole Steve Guttenberg video. Everything the man says makes sense.
    The way he reviews audio remind me of John Darko.
    Audio, be it hi end or low end, is nothing more than creating the sound in your room that you like.
    The “truth” doesn’t exist. The “best” sound doesn’t exist. It’s all subjective. Biased or not. Period.

    1. Genez,
      Your comment about the the “leadership of BLM and ANTIFA” is so incredibly inappropriate.
      BLM has no genuine central leadership, and AntiFa has no leadership at all, they are just normal people who simply are willing to confront fascists.

      1. mtbMusic?

        >>>>BLM has no genuine central leadership, and AntiFa has no leadership at all, they are just normal people who simply are willing to confront fascists.<<<<

        You call that normal…… ok.

  14. If we could throw out all the demands of the “measurement” police? And, the only criterion of concern was “how good does it sound to you?” I wonder what audio marvels we are being denied.

    1. There is a difference between “measurement” police ( i.e. the unit must have a jitter measurement below a certain value ) and required measurement disclosure ( i.e. the unit has XXX seconds of jitter ).

      1. You choose only that one of many things that are measurable? You might as well include “clipping” in with your list if that is how you wish to limit it….

        Not all distortions sound bad…. Technicolor film was a distortion of reality.

        1. Yes, of course, jitter was just and example. If we are talking about an amp, of course, you would want to know at what power into what load does it clip at.

  15. very true. To achieve this one has to discard his or her preconceived notions and be prepared to digest the bitter pill of having been wrong. The moment justification enters the situation dishonesty rears it’s ugly head. It happens to everyone and has to be actively discouraged . This applies to all from the gurus down to the most ardent disciples. The first step is to honestly ask one self whether one is guilty of it or not. Regards.

  16. Today’s Sad Observations on Life:
    1) People very rarely change their mind. Why? We are ‘invested’ with our opinions, they are ‘us.’
    2) Straw Man arguments separate us. By responding to what you did not say doesn’t get us anywheren positive.
    President Obama spent lime– some say too much –much ‘Steel Man-ing’ someone with a different opinion, ‘…only then can I reply to his true belief.’

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