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Choosing wisely 2

Posted 7 years ago

In yesterday’s post we decided on the type of output stage we wanted: balanced or unbalanced depending on the topology of the DAC before it or, in the case of a preamp, how extensive the designer wanted to go. In our case we always spend the extra time and effort to go fully balanced wherever […]
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Getting balanced 11

Posted 7 years ago

In our series on the output stage duties of a DAC or preamplifier, we listed 9 tasks that had to be completed and we’ve already covered the first. Today we’ll cover the second task:removing any common mode distortions and noise if we’re running a balanced DAC. As I have covered in the past a balanced […]
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Losing sleep 8

Posted 7 years ago

We’re still on the trail of defining the basic requirements for the output stage of a DAC or, for that matter, a preamplifier because the two are quite the same in terms of requirements. However, today will be a slight detour as I made an observation last night I wanted to share. Terri and I […]
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Artist tools 3

Posted 7 years ago

Yesterday’s post about the output stage sure got a lot of attention, in particular two comments I made: the posts are too technical and loud is better. Fascinating. Many of you have written me asking not to back off while others want more – I think perhaps an increased effort on my part to balance […]
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Louder is "better" 5

Posted 7 years ago

A few readers have asked me to back off on being uber technical and get back to writing more about sound and high end audio from a listener’s perspective rather than a designer’s and I’ll definitely do that but I did want to finish up on our little series about DACS. One thing to remember […]
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Duties of the output stage 0

Posted 7 years ago

The analog output stage of a DAC is a critical element in the DAC’s construction. It has a number of duties to perform and there are seven ways from Sunday to perform them: all important and all critical to the sonic success of the DAC. From the output of the current to voltage converter we […]
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Only letting a few worms out of the can 1

Posted 7 years ago

Now that we’ve figured out why we need an analog output stage on our DAC let’s discuss why it’s so important to the sound of the DAC. We started this thread because one of my readers asked a really good question: why, if most of a DACS’ internals and technologies are devoted to decoding the […]
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It all ends here 0

Posted 7 years ago

Happy new year! I truly hope we all enjoy a peaceful, happy, healthy and prosperous new year. I am sure that would be something we could all benefit from. 2012 was a great year for us, filled with life, adventure, family and a wealth of good things. Hope yours was as well. I promised that […]
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Filtering 3

Posted 7 years ago

We’ve worked our way through the internal DAC chain to a point where we have finally decoded the numeric musical data into current steps, then converted those steps into voltage. It is at this point that we wind up with our music back into the original form it started with but with one exception: there’s […]
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Conversions 4

Posted 7 years ago

Yesterday we traced the digital audio path from the input of the DAC all the way to the output of the DAC itself, which outputs a series of current steps, and are in the process of converting those current steps to voltage steps. You can use a simple resistor to make the current to voltage […]
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Amperage alchemy 2

Posted 7 years ago

We’ve briefly discussed getting the digital audio stream into the DAC and then decoding those bits back into a form of analog that gets us a lot closer to being able to play it on our systems. At the output of the DAC chip we have a series of current steps that need to be […]
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DAC attack 0

Posted 7 years ago

Yesterday we detailed the layout of a PCM DAC and its 4 components that make it work: the input receiver, DAC itself, Current to Voltage converter and finally the analog stage: the subject of this series. We want to try and understand why the output analog stage plays such an important role in the way […]
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Inner workings 2

Posted 7 years ago

We’re starting down the path of trying to unravel a bit of the topic why the analog output stage of a DAC is so important: perhaps more important than the DAC itself. To begin let’s first take a DAC apart into its 4 main categories so we can start with a clear understanding of what’s […]
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Analog matters 2

Posted 7 years ago

I thought we might delve into a new subject this week: the all important analog stage at the output of a DAC. I think this may make for some interesting posts as adisproportionateamount of attention is paid to the digital side of the DAC relative to the analog side. I smile every time I read […]
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Merry Christmas 1

Posted 7 years ago

Today’s a day for us to spend with our family and friends and enjoy life, music and the pursuit of happiness. I just wanted to pass along some good cheer and thank all of my readers for their trust and friendship. I hope we can continue to build community and friendship for a growing number […]
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Timing is everything 0

Posted 7 years ago

I wanted to finish up our little series on how Class D amps worked today, tomorrow we’ll enjoy Christmas with our families and then onto new and fertile grounds for audio the day after. We’ve learned that the output of a PWD amp is very simple: a series of on or off pulses that vary […]
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2

Posted 7 years ago

Yesterday we covered Analog Codingshowing how we have analog in and analog out with a Class D amplifier and no magic decoding process is required as we have in PCM. The direct output of the PWM engine is a series of on and off again pulses that can be fed directly into a loudspeaker to […]
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Analog coding 8

Posted 7 years ago

One of the reasons Class D amplifiers are considered by most to be digital (technically they are not) is the need to encode the continuous analog input signal into another language to work. So it may be correct, in many minds, to classify this amplifier type as something other than analog because of the encode/decode […]
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Just in case the world doesn't end… 0

Posted 7 years ago

Sorry, I am writing this yesterday and when I went to input the publish date I saw it would be the 21st, winter solstice, my son Sean’s birthday and “the end of the world”. So I am guessing that’s a bunch of bunk and I better have a post ready. We’re now ready to start […]
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Amp classes 0

Posted 7 years ago

In the past few days we’ve covered a lot of ground learning about the various amplifier classes like A, AB, B which are the main amplification classes, referring mostly to how the output stages of the amplifiers use power: efficiently or inefficiently. We also covered Complimentary, Push Pull and Single Ended output stages. There are […]
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Different strokes 0

Posted 7 years ago

Yesterday we explained how a single ended power amplifier worked and what the differences are between our traditional power amplifier output stage and this unique topology. Today I want to wrap up the background series on traditional amp topologies so we can move on to learn about Class D – a topology that is still […]
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Single ended frying pan 2

Posted 7 years ago

We’re in the middle of our series on amplifier classes (not learning classes, but output classes) and getting on to understanding one of the very different classes of analog designs, Class D. Along the way we’ve covered Class A, B and A/B. Today I thought we’d take a side street over to one of my […]
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A+B makes it all sound better 4

Posted 7 years ago

Yesterday’s post covered what Class B in a power amplifier means and the day before we explained Class A. It’s probably instructive to review what we’ve learned so far as there are new readers jumping on board daily and I don’t want to leave them out. We’re learning something about the different classes of amplifier […]
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Class B 2

Posted 7 years ago

Yesterday we covered Class A and what it means when it comes to a power amplifier. It’s been pointed out in our comments section that Class A biasing doesn’t have to apply only to a power amp output stage and, in fact, it is used extensively in the input circuits of most amps, preamps and […]
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Class warfare 4

Posted 7 years ago

First off, we’ve published a new videohttps://vimeo.com/55572974 which is a behind the scenes look at what goes into building a PerfectWave product. It’s pretty interesting if you’ve never seen what it takes to make a modern piece of audio equipment. It’s probably not politically correct to write about different classes of people, but I trust […]
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